Is there a way to disable / adjust the effects?
You can disable night battles in the options if you wish. In quick fight it is also possible to determine the time of day and the weather.
I would also like to configure the visibility bubble which ends at just a few hundred meters.
Visibility is affected by the weather and the time of day. If the visibility is poor, the drawing distance seems to beautomatically shorter because you wouldn't be able to see further anyway. In operation the weather conditions are historical. Sometimes it's dark and murky, but there's also clear and sunny days when the visibility is high including the drawing distance (might be up to 2km or more).
In dark time you can use infrared binoculars (only for player, right-click on the binoculars icon), or flares by arty spotters.
Thanks for the info, I didn't know there's such a thing